Cardiovascular drugs

Antiplatelet drugs Aspirin  inhibiting platelet aggregation. Used in low dose (eg 75mg/24h PO) for secondary prevention following MI, TIA/stroke, and for patients with angina or peripheral vascular disease. May have…

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Management of chronic asthma

Step 1 Occasional short-acting inhaled beta 2-agonist as required for symptom relief. If used more than once daily, or night-time symptoms, go to Step 2.Step 2 Add standard-dose inhaled steroid,…

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Infective endocarditis (IE)

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Classification: 50% of all endocarditis occurs on normal valves, It follows an acute course, and presents with acute heart failure  and emboli, Fever + new murmur = endocarditis until proven…

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Sickle-cell anaemia

Sickle-cell anaemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing production of abnormal Beta globin chains. An amino acid substitution in the gene coding  results in the production of HbS rather than…

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Diuretics and their mechanism of action

1-Loop diuretics eg furosemide, bumetanide Mechanism: Block the Na+/K+/2Cl  co-transporter in the thick ascending limb of the Loop of Henle, hence increase the solute load of the filtrate and reduce…

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Thalassaemia

The thalassaemias are genetic diseases associated with Hb synthesis disturbance  , with underproduction (or no production) of one globin chain, Unmatched globins precipitate, damaging RBC membranes, causing their haemolysis while…

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Liver failure

Liver failure may occur suddenly in the previously healthy liver = acute hepatic failure. More often it occurs as a result of decompensation of chronic liver disease = acute-on-chronic hepatic…

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nephrotic syndrome

nephrotic syndrome Is disorder of kidney associated with pass too much protein with urine that lead to disturbance of oncotic pressure and body oedema, The nephrotic syndrome cause Proteinuria >3.5g/24h…

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by a symmetrical, deforming, peripheral polyarthritis. symptoms and Signs of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symmetrical swollen, painful, and stiff small joints of…

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Typhoid and paratyphoid

Typhoid and paratyphoid caused by Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi (types A, B, and C), Incubation: 3–21d, Spread: Faecal–oral symptoms Malaise,  headache, high fever with relative bradycardia, cough, and constipation.…

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